Thursday, January 30, 2020

The Darkness out there Essay Example for Free

The Darkness out there Essay She beseeches the doctors aid; she sees the hopelessness of human assistance; and there is a desperate earnestness in her manner that goes to the young mans heart. The plot builds up by keeping the reader puzzled about the unknown person who needs the doctors help. The doctor cannot understand why he cannot help until the following morning, especially as the woman is in such a distressed state. The doctor explores various thoughts but cannot find a logical explanation. He speculated a great deal and to very little purpose on the possible circumstances of the case. The mood of the story is further darkened by the images of Walworth, which is the location of the tragedy. The village is full of poverty, decay and questionable characters. His way lay across a marshy common, through irregular lanes, with here and there a ruinous and dismantled cottage fast falling to pieces with decay and neglect. The writer uses assonance and imagery that emphasises the dreariness and sense of no hope. After plodding wearily through the MUD and MIRE. A small low building, one story above the ground with a desolate and unpromising exterior. The sense of mystery is kept up as the doctor is told that he is too soon to help the patient rather than too late. Am I in time? Too soon replied the man. The surgeon turned hastily round, with a gesture of astonishment mixed with alarm. But then the puzzle is suddenly solved and the reason for the tragedy becomes clear. The truth flashed suddenly upon him. The tone and pace of The Darkness Out There is much slower and less intense. The descriptions and conversation are about everyday things. The setting is much more modern and the language is casual rather than formal. She would go to this old Mrs Rutters and have a bit of a giggle with Susie and come home for tea and wash her hair. The writer uses lots of alliteration and assonance to create a lighthearted mood that reflects the country setting. Polleny summer grass that glinted in the sun. Pattern and petal. This style is used to bring the characters to life as well. She seemed composed of circles, a cottage-loaf of a woman, with a face below which chins collapsed. There are lots of contrasting images as well, because the young girl is frightened of the wood. There are some nasty things as well as pretty colourful flowers, and the dark side of the wood is described to remind the reader about the main theme of the story. The dark reach of the spinney came right to the gate there so that she would have to walk by the edge of it with the light suddenly shutting off the bare wide sky of the field. The chatty conversations move the plot forward, and the young girl finds out things about the old womans past. The writer uses similes to build up an image of the womans dead husband, which the girl sees in a photo. The girl saw a man with a tooth-brush moustache, his army cap slicing his forehead. Although the old woman seems to be plump and harmless, as the story goes on, a harder side starts to come out. The young boy who is helping with the cleaning, starts to pick up on things about her that make him feel uncomfortable. His opinion turns out to be correct, for her darker side is very unpleasant indeed. She and her sister heard the plane crash and they went to investigate. They cheered when they realised it was German plane. The writer starts to build up a mood of fear and tension as they are exploring the crash. The language becomes more harsh and sharp, and reflects the hatred that the old lady felt. Bang there goes some more bastards. Tit for tat. The old woman tells the story without seeming to feel as though she did anything wrong. But the horror of the young boy and girl comes across in the description of their reaction. The boys spoon clattered to the floor; he did not move. At the end the writer sums up the different kinds of darkness that can exist. She emphasises that things are not always what they seem to be on the surface. This makes sure that the reader fully understands what the story has been about. You could get people all wrong and there was a darkness that was not the darkness of tree shadows. There are some things about the stories that are similar. There is an element of mystery and secrecy in them both which makes the reader want to continue reading and see what happens. The endings are both tragic as well. Both stories are about death, but one of the main characters causes the death, and the other one is the victim of a death. The tone of the stories are very different. The Black Veil is much deeper and disturbing, and the characters are frightened, helpless and in great pain. The mood of The Darkness Out There is quite colourful and bright, but this actually covers up the evil act of the old woman. The stories are written at different times, and so the Dickens tale uses words that are formal and outdated. This compares with the chatty, colloquial language which goes on between the characters in the other story. The endings of both tales are very powerful. The reader discovers a dreadful tragedy has occurred. However, the Black Veil ending makes you feel sad as absolutely nothing could be done to save the womans son. In contrast, the jolly old woman turns out to be a murderer, and like the boy and the girl the reader ends up hating her. It makes you want to throw up he said, someone like that. Richard Hiom 01/05/2007 1 Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Joseph Conrad section.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Arthritis Essay -- essays research papers fc

Arthritis is a general term for approximately 100 diseases that produce either INFLAMMATION of connective tissues, particularly in joints, or noninflammatory degeneration of these tissues. The word means "joint inflammation," but because other structures are also affected, the diseases are often called connective tissue diseases. The terms rheumatism and rheumatic diseases are also used. Besides conditions so named, the diseases include gout, lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis, degenerative joint disease, and many others, among them the more recently identified LYME DISEASE. Causes of these disorders include immune-system reactions and the wear and tear of aging, while research indicates that the nervous system may often be equally involved. About one out of seven Americans exhibit some form of arthritis. INFLAMMATORY CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES This varied group of diseases produces inflammation in the connective tissues, particularly in the joints. The signs of inflammation--warmth, redness, swelling, and pain--may be apparent. Microscopic examination of the lesions reveals prominent blood vessels, abnormal accumulations of white blood cells, and varying degrees of wound healing with scarring. In some diseases, the inflammation is clearly an immune reaction, the body's defense against invading microorganisms. In others, the cause is different or unknown. Infectious Arthritis This disease is most common in young adults. Infection in a joint is usually caused by bacteria or other microorganisms that invade the joint from its blood vessels. Within hours or a few days the joint, usually the knee or elbow, becomes inflamed. There is an abnormal accumulation of synovial, or joint, fluid, which may be cloudy and contain large numbers of white blood cells. Gonococcal arthritis, a complication of gonorrhea, is the most common form of infectious arthritis. Treatment with antibiotics and aspiration of synovial fluid is usually promptly effective, and only minor residual damage is done to the joint. Occasionally the infection is prolonged and produces joint destruction and requires surgery. Rheumatic Fever This is a form of infectious arthritis caused by hemolytic streptococcus, a bacterium. Unlike typical infectious arthritis, however, the disease is most common in children aged 5 to 15 years, begins weeks after the onset of the streptococc... ... certain adrenal cortical steroids are powerful inhibitors of inflammation, toxic side effects limit their usefulness. Similarly, drugs that inhibit proliferation of cells in the inflammatory masses have potentially severe side effects. Drugs that inhibit undesirable inflammation may also inhibit desired inflammatory responses. A result is a high frequency of secondary infections. More specific therapy, for example, allopurinol and colchicine in gout, is dependent on knowledge of the precise biochemical mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. Researchers are also studying the use of drugs that act on the nervous system. Despite the wear-and-tear origin of degenerative joint disease, it, too, may respond well to so-called anti-inflammatory drugs. Perhaps they are primarily acting as analgesics (pain-killers), or they may act by decreasing the secondary inflammation that follows joint trauma. Franklin Mullinax Bibliography: Arthritis Foundation, Understanding Arthritis (1986); Kelley, William N., et al., eds., Textbook of Rheumatology, 2d ed., (1985); McCarty, Daniel F., ed., Arthritis and Allied Conditions, 11th ed. (1988); Moll, J. M. H., Rheumatology in Clinical Practice (1987).

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Smoking Work Cited

English 103 November 7, 2012 Works Cited Bailey, William Everett. The Invisible Drug. Houston: Mosaic Publications, 1996. Print. William Bailey wrote this book on cigarettes with many views from doctors and other professional advisors to show the effects and complications from smoking cigarettes. This book had a lot of information from previous books the was further reviewed and more recent. However, because this book is from 1996 I used it for a place to start and find more information about the subject. Das , B. C. et al. Smoking And Cardiovascular Health: A Review Of The Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Prevention And Control Of Tobacco. †Ã‚  Indian Journal Of Medical Sciences  63. 11 (2009): 520-533. Academic Search Premier. Web. 31 Oct. 2012. From this journal I learned more about the direct risks from smoking cigarettes and how it increases the chances of getting some sort of cardiovascular disease. Also how smoking has been claimed to cause eleven percent of cardiovascular deaths. Haustein, K. O. Tobacco or Health? : Physiological and Social Damages Caused by Tobacco Smoking.Berlin: Springer, 2003. Print. This book gave me a lot of information about smoking and many statistics as well. It is an older book so it was a base and gave me a lot of information to further research for the rest of the project. It told me of all the organs and systems affected by smoking cigarettes so it was a good place to start. â€Å"Heart Disease Facts. †Ã‚  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 23 Mar. 2012. Web. 30 Oct. 2012. From this website I learned that nearly 20% of all deaths from heart disease in the U. S. re directly related to cigarette smoking. Coronary heart disease is the reason of death for over 616,000 people died of heart disease. I know this is a credible source because it is a government based site. Lemonick, Michael D. , Dan Cray, and Harlene Ellin. â€Å"The Other Lung Disease. †Ã‚  Timeà ‚  163. 16 (2004): 62-63. Academic Search Premier. Web. 30 Oct. 2012. This article gave a lot of information about emphysema and lung cancer both. Lung  cancer is deadlier, it killed 150,000 Americans in 2000, while COPD killed  120,000, but COPD is more common in smokers and even non smokers by a long shot.Lung cancer is the number one killer because is it so hard to detect, by the time it is detected it is often too advanced to reverse. Emphysema is not reversible. â€Å"Lung Cancer. †Ã‚  Pub Med Health. U. S. National Library of Medicine, 24 Aug. 2011. Web. 28 Oct. 2012. From this website I gained information on lung cancer and how cigarettes cause more than half of the diagnoses. Cigarettes contain chemicals that are known to cause cancer, including hydrogen cyanide, carbon monoxide, arsenic, and ammonia. When inhaled, instantaneously your chances of getting lung cancer become higher. â€Å"National Cancer Institute.   Harms of Smoking and Health Benefits of Quitti ng. NCI, 25 Apr. 2012. Web. 1 Nov. 2012. From this website I learned that within the past year, roughly 226,160 cases of lung cancer have been diagnosed. Also in the past year lung cancer has caused 160,340 deaths. In doing the math, that’s over 50% of those who were diagnosed with lung cancer passed away. â€Å"NATIONAL EMPHYSEMA TREATMENT TRIAL. †Ã‚  NATIONAL EMPHYSEMA TREATMENT TRIAL. NETT, 20 May 2003. Web. 4 Nov. 2012. This website gave me most of my information on emphysema. I learned more about what it is and how smoking causes it.Emphysema is a condition in which the small bags in the lungs become filled with too much air, causing breathing difficulties and can lead to death. I know this is a reliable source because it is a government based site. RAMZI ZEMNI, et al. â€Å"Role Of CYP1A1 (T6235C) Polymorphism And Cigarette Smoking In The Development Of Coronary Heart Disease In Tunisian Population. †Ã‚  Journal Of Genetics  90. 2 (2011): 303-307. Academ ic Search Premier. Web. 31 Oct. 2012. From this academic journal I learned that while other things may cause coronary heart disease the main reason is from smoking cigarettes.I also got to view graphs and how certain people, depending on their lifestyle and how much they smoke, develop it fast or have more severe cases. Taraseviciene-Stewart, Laimute, and Norbert F. Voelkel. â€Å"Molecular Pathogenesis Of Emphysema. †Ã‚  Journal Of Clinical Investigation  118. 2 (2008): 394-402. Academic Search Premier. Web. 28 Oct. 2012. As a cigarette is inhaled the toxins in a cigarette leave behind deposits of chemicals from the tobacco. These chemicals remain in the lung cavity and start the damaging lungs almost immediately, breaking the smaller bags and creating a fewer amount of larger bags in the lungs.While only fifteen to twenty percent of smokers develop emphysema smoking causes your chances of getting it to go up more than 85%. Tuder, Rubin M. , and Jeong H. Yun. â€Å"It Tak es Two To Tango: Cigarette Smoke Partners With Viruses To Promote Emphysema. â€Å"Journal Of Clinical Investigation  118. 8 (2008): 2689-2693. Academic Search Premier. Web. 28 Oct. 2012. Emphysema is one form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) the fourth leading death in the world and still rising. Emphysema causes at least 100,000 deaths per year. â€Å"What Is Coronary Heart Disease?   NHLBI. N. p. , 23 Aug. 2012. Web. 30 Oct. 2012. Facts from this heart disease website show me that one in every four deaths is caused from a cardiovascular disease. Also that nearly half of cardiovascular diseases are caused by smoking cigarettes. I also read that Carbon monoxide and nicotine in the cigarettes cause the blood to clump together, making the blood more â€Å"sticky†, which makes blood more prone to clotting. The clumping platelets in your blood can block your coronary arteries that cause heart attacks, a trigger of Coronary heart disease.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Brittle Stars - Ophiuroidea - The Animal Encyclopedia

Brittle stars (Ophiuroidea) are a group of echinoderms that resemble starfish. There are about 1500 species of brittle stars alive today and most species inhabit marine habitats with depths greater than 1500 feet. There are a few species of shallow water brittle stars. These species live in the sand or mud just below the low tide mark. They often live amongst coral and sponges as well. Brittle stars inhabit all the worlds oceans and live in a variety of climate regions including tropical, temperate and polar waters. Brittle stars are subdivided into two basic groups, the brittle stars (Ophiurida) and the basket stars (Euryalida). Brittle stars have a star shaped body. Like many echinoderms, they exhibit pentaradial symmetry, a 5-sided radial symetry. Brittle stars have five arms that join together at a central body disk. The arms are clearly delineated from the central body disk, and in this way brittle stars can be distinguished from starfish (starfish arms blend with the central body disk such that it is not easy to delineate where the arm ends and the central body disk begins). Brittle stars move using a water vascular system and tube feet. Their arms can move side to side but not up and down (if they are bent up or down they break, hence the name brittle star). Their arms are extremely flexible from side to side and enable them to move through the water and along substrate surfaces. When they move, they do so in a straight line, with one arm serving as the forward directing point and other arms pushing the body along that path. Brittle stars and basket stars both have long flexible arms. These arms are supported by calcium carbonate plates (also known as vertebral ossicles). The ossicles are encased in soft tissue and jointed plates that run the length of the arm. Brittle stars have a nervous system that consists of a nerve ring and that encircles their central body disk. Nerves run down each arm. Brittle stars, like all echinoderms, lack a brain. The have no eyes and their only developed senses are chemosensory (they can detect chemicals in the water) and touch. Brittle stars undergo respiration using bursae, sacks that enable gas exchange as well as excretion. These sacs are located on the bottom of the central body disk. Cilia within the sacs direct water flow so that oxygen can be absorbed from the water and waste flushed from the body. Brittle stars have a mouth that has five jaw-like structures around it. The mouth opening is also used to expel waste. An esophagus and stomach connect to the mouth opening. Brittle stars feed on organic material on the sea floor (they are primarily detritivores or scavengers although some species occasionally feed on small invertebrate prey). Basket stars feed on plankton and bacteria they catch by suspension feeding. Most species of brittle stars have separate sexes. A few species are either hermaphroditic or protandric. In many species, larvae develop inside the body of the parent. When an arm is lost, brittle stars often regenerate the lost limb. If a predator catches a brittle star by its arm, it loses the arm as a means of escape. Brittle stars diverged from other echinoderms about 500 million years ago, during the Early Ordovician. Brittle stars are most closely related to sea urchins and sea cucumbers. Details about the evolutionary relationship of brittle star to other echinoderms are not clear. Brittle stars reach sexual maturity at about 2 years of age and become full grown by 3 or 4 years of age. Their life span is generally about 5 years. Classification: Animals Invertebrates Echinoderms Brittle Stars